Nylon, Polyester, Acrylic, Polyvinyl Chloride, Polypropylene, Polyvinyl Chloride Main Difference.

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Update time : 2023-09-12 14:38:53

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Characteristics of Common Fibers

Characteristics of Common Fibers
1. Cotton fiber: fine and soft, short fibers, varying lengths. 

2. Hemp: coarse and hard, feel hard, yellowish, it is difficult to distinguish a single fiber.

3. Wool: thicker than cotton fibers and long, length in 60-120mm. feel rich, elastic, curly fibers, creamy white.

4. Silk: long and uniform long fibers, fine and slender, soft to the touch, soft luster, silk ringing feeling. The color is very light yellow. A cocoon of silk length: 600-1200mm.

5. Glossy rayon: white with a blinding luster, soft to the touch, but not as refreshing as silk, silk ringing feeling, wet and strong than dry strong.

6. Polyester: crisp and straight, strong, elasticity is good, not easy to deformation.

7. Nylon: waxed light, strong, elastic, easy to deform than polyester.

Characteristics of Common Fabrics
Characteristics of Common Fabrics

1. Silk fabrics: silk bright, soft, bright color, thin and flowing.

2. Cotton fabrics: with the luster of natural cotton, soft but not smooth, billet cloth surface and cottonseed shavings and other small impurities.

3. Woolen fabrics: worsted tweed class tweed surface smooth, clear weaving pattern, soft luster, rich body bone, good elasticity, feel sticky smooth;

4. Coarse spinning is thick, tight and soft, elastic, good, fat light.

5. Hemp fabric: hard and cool.

6. Polyester fabric: feel quite cool, good elasticity, not easy to wrinkle, in the sunshine has flash.

7. Nylon fabric: feel than polyester sticky smooth, but easier than polyester wrinkle.

8. Acrylic fabrics: fluffy feel, good stretch, similar to woolen fabrics, but not as active as woolen fabrics.

9. Vinylon fabrics: similar to cotton fabrics, but not as soft as cotton fabrics, color is not bright.

I. Nylon

Nylon

1. Nylon Definition.

Nylon is the Chinese name of the synthetic fiber nylon, the translation of the name is also known as "nylon", "nylon", the scientific name for polyamide .

Fibre, that is, polyamide fiber. Because Jinzhou Chemical Fiber Factory is the first synthetic polyamide fibre factory in China, so it is named "nylon". It is the world's earliest synthetic fiber varieties, due to excellent performance, raw material resources, has been widely used.

2. The Performance of Nylon:

1). Strong, good abrasion resistance, ranking first among all fibers. Its abrasion resistance is 10 times that of cotton fiber, 10 times that of dry viscose fiber, and 140 times that of wet fiber. Therefore, its durability is excellent.

2). The elasticity and elastic recovery of nylon fabrics is excellent, but it is easy to deform under small external forces, so its fabrics are easy to become wrinkled in the process of wearing. Ventilation and air permeability is poor, easy to produce static electricity.

3). Nylon fabric moisture absorption in synthetic fiber fabrics are better varieties, so the clothing made of nylon than polyester clothing wear comfortable. Good moth and corrosion resistance.

4). Heat and light resistance are not good enough, ironing temperature should be controlled below 140 ℃. In the process of wearing and using must pay attention to washing, maintenance conditions, so as not to damage the fabric. Nylon fabrics are light fabrics, in the synthetic fiber fabrics are only listed after polypropylene, acrylic fabrics, therefore, suitable for the production of mountaineering clothing, winter clothing and so on.

Nylon, also called nylon, is polymerized from caprolactam. Its abrasion resistance can be called the champion among all natural and chemical fibers. Nylon staple fiber is mainly used for blending with wool or other wool-type chemical fibers. In many textiles, are mixed with nylon, so that the abrasion resistance to improve, such as viscose brocade Warda tweed, viscose brocade VanLiDin, viscose eye brocade tweed, viscose brocade wool three-in-one Warda tweed, wool viscose brocade navy tweed, etc., are strong wear-resistant nylon textiles. In addition, a variety of nylon socks, elastic socks, nylon stockings, are woven with nylon filament. It can also be made into carpets.


3. The Three Varieties.

The three main categories of nylon varieties of nylon fiber fabrics can be divided into three main categories of pure spinning, blending and interwoven fabrics, each of which contains many varieties.


1). Nylon pure textile

With nylon silk as raw material woven into a variety of fabrics, such as nylon taffeta, nylon crepe. Because of the nylon filament woven, it has a smooth feel, firm and durable, affordable features, there are also fabrics easy to wrinkle and not easy to restore the shortcomings. Nylon taffeta used to do lightweight clothing, down jacket or raincoat cloth, while nylon crepe is suitable for summer dress, spring and fall dual-use shirt.

2). Nylon blended and interwoven products

The use of nylon filament or staple fiber and other fibers blended or interwoven fabrics, both the characteristics and strengths of each fiber. Such as viscose/nylon Huada tweed, 15% of the nylon and 85% of the viscose blended into a yarn made of warp density than the weft density of double the texture of the tweed body, thick, tough and wearable features, the disadvantage is the poor elasticity, easy to wrinkle, wet strength decline, easy to wear sagging. In addition, there are viscose/nylon van Liding, viscose/nylon/wool tweed and other varieties, are some commonly used fabrics.

II. Polyester


1. The Definition of Polyester:

Polyester is an important variety of synthetic fibers and is the trade name of polyester fabric in China. It is a fiber-forming polymer - polyethylene terephthalate (PET) - made from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) or dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol (EG) by esterification or ester-exchange and polycondensation reactions, and fibers made by spinning and post-treatment.

2. Properties of Polyester

1). High strength. The strength of short fibers is 2.6-5.7cN/dtex, and the strength of high tenacity fibers is 5.6-8.0cN/dtex. Due to low moisture absorption, its wet strength is basically the same as its dry strength. Impact strength is 4 times higher than nylon and 20 times higher than viscose fiber. 

2). Good elasticity. The elasticity is close to that of wool, and when elongated by 5% to 6%, it can recover almost completely. Wrinkle resistance exceeds that of other fibers, i.e., the fabric is not wrinkled and has good dimensional stability. The modulus of elasticity is 22~141cN/dtex, which is 2~3 times higher than nylon. Good water absorption. 

3). Good abrasion resistance. Abrasion resistance is second only to nylon, which has the best abrasion resistance, and is better than other natural fibers and synthetic fibers.

4). Good light resistance. Light resistance is second only to acrylic.

5). Corrosion resistance. Resistant to bleach, oxidizers, hydrocarbons, ketones, petroleum products and inorganic acids. Resistant to dilute alkali, not afraid of mold, but hot alkali can make it decompose. Poor dyeability.

6). Polyester imitation silk sense of strong, bright luster, but not soft enough, with the effect of flash, feel smooth, flat, good elasticity. Hand pinch the silk surface after loosening without obvious creases. The warp and weft are not easy to tear off when they are wet.

7). Polyester after melt spinning to form POY after stretching, elasticization and other post-process formation of polyester yarn. The most prominent feature is good shape retention, wearing polyester clothes are straight and not wrinkled, look especially spiritual, healthy. It is washed, without ironing, as usual, flat and straight. Polyester has a wide range of uses, the market a variety of polyester-cotton, polyester wool, polyester silk and polyester viscose clothing and apparel, are its products. 

8). Polyester fabrics absorb moisture poorly, wearing a stuffy feeling, while easy to carry static electricity, stained dust, affecting the appearance and comfort. However, it is extremely easy to dry after washing, and the wet strength almost does not decline, not deformed, there is a good wash wearable performance. 

9). Polyester is a synthetic fabric in the best heat-resistant fabrics, melting point at 260 ℃, ironing temperature can be at 180 ℃. With thermoplasticity, it can be made into pleated skirt with long-lasting pleats. At the same time, polyester fabrics are less resistant to melting, soot, sparks and other easy to form holes. Therefore, wear should try to avoid the contact of cigarette, sparks, etc.. 

10). Polyester fabrics have better light resistance, in addition to poorer than acrylic, its sun resistance is better than natural fiber fabrics. Especially in the glass behind the sun resistance is very good, almost with the acrylic is not the same. Polyester fabrics are good at resisting various chemicals. Acid, alkali on its degree of destruction are not large, while not afraid of mold, not afraid of insects. Polyester fabrics are very good at resisting wrinkles and retaining shape, and are therefore suitable for jacket garments.

3. The Broad Categories of Polyester Varieties:

The broad categories of varieties of polyester are staple fibers, stretched filaments, deformed filaments, decorative filaments, industrial filaments, and various differentiated fibers.

4. Polyester Staple Fiber Varieties:

1). Distinguished by physical properties: high-strength low-stretch type, medium-strength medium-stretch type, low-strength medium-stretch type, high-modulus type, high-strength high-modulus type.

2). Distinguished by post-processing requirements: cotton, wool, hemp, silk.

3). Distinguished by function: cationic dyeable, moisture absorption, flame retardant, colored, anti-pilling.

4). Distinguished by use: clothing, flocculation, decoration, industrial use.

5). Antistatic by fiber cross-section: shaped silk, hollow silk.

5. Polyester Filament Varieties:

1). Primary filaments: Undrawn (conventional spinning) (UDY), semi-pre-orientated filaments (medium-speed spinning) (MOY), pre-orientated filaments (high-speed spinning) (POY), highly oriented filaments (ultra-high-speed spinning) (HOY)

2). Stretch filaments: stretch filaments (low-speed stretch filaments) (DY), full stretch filaments (spun stretch one-step) (FDY), full take-off filaments (spun one-step) (FOY)

3). Deformed Filaments: Conventional Deformed Filaments (DY), Drawn Deformed Filaments (DTY), Air Transformed Filaments (ATY)

6. Modification of Polyester:

Polyester fiber fabrics are more varied, in addition to weaving pure polyester fabrics, there are many and a variety of textile fibers blended or interwoven products, to make up for the shortcomings of pure polyester fabrics, to play a better taking performance. At present, polyester fabrics are moving towards the direction of imitation wool, silk, hemp, buckskin and other synthetic fibers naturalized.

1). Polyester Simulated Silk Fabric

By the round, shaped cross-section of polyester filament or staple fiber yarn woven with silk appearance style of polyester fabrics, has a low price, wrinkle-free and non-iron advantages, quite popular with consumers. Common varieties are: polyester silk, polyester silk crepe, polyester silk satin, polyester georgette yarn, polyester interwoven silk and so on. These varieties of silk fabrics with flowing drape, smooth, soft, pleasing to the eye, at the same time, both polyester fabrics, stiff, wear-resistant, easy to wash, free of ironing, the shortcoming is that such fabrics are poor moisture absorption and breathability, wearing not too cool, in order to overcome this shortcoming, there are now more new polyester fabrics have come out, such as high hygroscopic polyester fabric is one of the fabrics.

2). Polyester Imitation Woolen Fabrics

By polyester filament such as polyester plus elastic silk, polyester network silk or a variety of shaped cross-section of polyester silk as raw materials, or medium-length polyester staple fibers and medium-length viscose or medium-length acrylic blended into yarn woven into a tweed style fabrics, respectively, known as the worsted imitation woolen fabrics and medium-length imitation woolen fabrics, whose price is lower than the same kind of woolen fabrics products. Both with tweed feel full of puffy, elastic and good characteristics, but also with polyester firm and durable, easy to wash and quick drying, flat and straight, not easy to deform, not easy to hair, pilling and other characteristics. Common varieties are: polyester elastic beige, polyester elastic wadding, polyester elastic tweed, polyester network spinning woolen fabrics, polyester viscose tweed, polyester nitrile hidden tweed.

3). Polyester Imitation Hemp Fabric 

It is currently one of the popular clothing materials in the international clothing market, the use of polyester or polyester/viscose strong twisted yarns woven into plain or convex stripes organization of fabrics, with the dry feel and appearance of hemp fabric style. Such as thin imitation linen moiré, not only the appearance of rugged, dry feel, and wear comfortable, cool, so it is very suitable for the production of summer shirts, dress clothes.

4). Polyester Imitation Buckskin Fabric 

It is one of the new polyester fabrics, with fine denier or ultra-fine denier polyester fiber as raw material, after special finishing process in the fabric base cloth to form a fine short velvet polyester suede fabrics, known as imitation buckskin fabrics, generally to non-woven fabrics, woven fabrics, knitted fabrics for the base cloth. With a soft texture, fine velvet full of elasticity, feel rich, firm and durable style characteristics. There are three common artificial high-grade deerskin, artificial high-quality deerskin and artificial ordinary deerskin. Suitable for women's clothing, high-level dresses, jackets, suits and other tops.

III. Acrylic


1. Definition of Acrylic Fiber

Acrylic is the name of polyacrylonitrile fiber in China. It is called Orlon by DuPont Company in the United States, and is phonetically translated as Orlon. This kind of fiber is light, warm, soft, and has the name of "synthetic wool". 

2. Performance of Acrylic Fiber

Acrylic fiber is known as synthetic wool, its elasticity and fluffiness are similar to natural wool. Therefore, the warmth of its fabrics is not inferior to wool fabrics, and even higher than similar wool fabrics by about 15%.

Acrylic fabrics are brightly dyed, and the light resistance is the first of all kinds of fiber fabrics. However, its abrasion resistance is the worst among all kinds of synthetic fiber fabrics. Therefore, acrylic fabric is suitable for outdoor clothing, swimwear and children's clothing. 

Acrylic fabric has poor moisture absorption, easy to stain, wearing a stuffy feeling, but its dimensional stability is better. 

Acrylic fabrics have good heat resistance, ranking second in synthetic fibers, and resistance to acids, oxidizers and organic solvents, relatively sensitive to the role of alkali. 

Acrylic fabrics in synthetic fiber fabrics are lighter fabrics, second only to polypropylene, so it is a good lightweight clothing materials, such as mountaineering clothing, winter warm clothing.

3.Varieties of Acrylic

1). Acrylic Pure Fabric 

Made of 100% acrylic fiber. Such as 100% wool type acrylic fiber processing of worsted acrylic women's tweed, with loose structure characteristics, its color and lustre, soft and elastic feel, texture is not loose and not rotten, suitable for the production of low and medium-grade women's clothing. And using 100% acrylic bulky yarn as raw material, it can make acrylic bulky coat tweed with plain or twill organization, which has the characteristics of plump handfeel, warm and easy woolen fabrics, and it is suitable for making spring, autumn and winter coats and casual clothes.

2). Acrylic Blended Fabrics

It refers to the fabrics blended with wool type or medium-length acrylic and viscose or polyester. Including acrylic/viscose tweed, acrylic/viscose tweed, acrylic/polyester tweed and so on. Acrylic/viscose wadding, also known as Oriental tweed, blended with 50% each of acrylic and viscose, has a thick and tight body, strong and durable, smooth and soft tweed surface, similar to wool wadding tweed style, but less elastic, easy to wrinkle, suitable for making inexpensive pants. Nitrile/viscose women's tweed is 85% acrylic and 15% viscose blended and made of crepe organization weaving, it is slightly hairy, bright color, it is light and thin body, good durability, poor resilience, suitable for outerwear. Acrylic/polyester tweed is blended with 40% and 60% of acrylic and polyester respectively, because it is mostly processed by plain and twill organization, so it has the features of flat appearance, firmness and non-ironing, and its disadvantage is that it is less comfortable, so it is mostly used for the production of medium-range garments such as outerwear and suit suits.

4. Modification of Acrylic Fiber

1). Fine denier acrylic fiber is spun by using the microporous spinneret made of high-tech means. Fine denier acrylic fiber can be spun into high-count yarn, the resulting textiles feel smooth, soft, delicate, soft color, at the same time with delicate fabrics, light, silky, drape and anti-pilling and other excellent characteristics, is the imitation of cashmere, imitation of one of the main raw materials of silk, in line with today's world of clothing, the new trend.

2). Imitation cashmere acrylic has two kinds of short fiber and wool. It has the smooth, soft and elastic handfeel of natural cashmere, good warmth and breathability, and also has the excellent dyeing performance of acrylic, which makes the acrylic cashmere products more colorful and beautiful, delicate and smooth, and is suitable for light and thin apparel, which is inexpensive and good value for money. 

3). The online dyeing methods of polyacrylonitrile fibers mainly have two kinds of original liquid coloring and gel dyeing. Among them, gel-dyed fiber is dyed in the wet spinning process of acrylic fiber, which is still in the gel state of the primary fiber, and the dyes used are mainly cationic dyes. Gel-dyed fibers, as a kind of large volume and wide range of products, have the advantages of dye saving, short process and dyeing time, small energy consumption, low labor intensity and so on, compared with the traditional printing and dyeing process.

4). Shaped fiber is made by using shaped spinneret holes and changing the process conditions. The fiber style is unique, the simulation effect is good, and the product grade is improved. Shaped acrylic fiber with flat cross-section is called flat acrylic, which is similar to animal hair, and is characterized by luster, elasticity, anti-pilling, fluffiness, and handfeel, which can have the unique effect of simulating animal skin. 

5). Anti-bacterial and moisture-conducting acrylic fiber is made of high-tech Chitosante activator, and the fabrics made of it have the functions of anti-bacterial, anti-mildew, deodorization, skin care, moisture absorption, softness, anti-static, plumping, and wrinkle-resistant. Due to Chitosante by adsorption, penetration, adhesion, chain linkage and other effects, and fiber permanent bonding, without the need for resin, and excellent resistance to washing. Tested, after 50 times of strong washing, the fabric can still maintain excellent antimicrobial ability. Without the side effect of polluting the environment and human body, it creates a natural, fresh, clean, hygienic, healthy and comfortable functional clothing effect, which is a new generation of acrylic products with multiple functions.

6). Antistatic acrylic fiber can improve the conductivity of the fiber, conducive to post-textile processing, antistatic fiber can improve the fabric pilling, staining, adherence to the skin phenomenon. It has no adverse side effects on human body. 

7). Acrylic fiber is also called cashmere, its character is very similar to wool, people will be known as "synthetic wool". It is polymerized with acrylonitrile. Acrylic is fluffy, soft and flexible, and its thermal insulation performance is better than that of wool. The strength of acrylic is 1-2.5 times higher than that of wool, so "synthetic wool" clothes are more durable than natural wool clothes. Acrylic sunlight, heat, can be ironed, light weight, these are its advantages. However, the moisture absorption of acrylic fiber is not good, can not absorb moisture through the moisture, giving people a hot and stuffy feeling, it also has an Achilles' heel, that is, poor abrasion resistance. The main use of acrylic wool staple fiber is made into a variety of wool textiles, such as texturized thread, acrylic and wool blended wool, etc., and a variety of colors of acrylic women's tweed, acrylic viscose blended tweed, acrylic tweed and so on. Also can make acrylic artificial fur, spandex plush, spandex camel hair and other products. Spandex cotton staple fiber can be woven into a variety of knitted products, such as sportswear pants.

8). Acrylic fiber is the trade name of polyacrylonitrile fiber in China, while it is called "Auron" and "Cashmere" in foreign countries. It is usually a synthetic fiber produced by wet spinning or dry spinning with the copolymer of more than 85% of acrylonitrile and the second and third monomers. Fibers produced by spinning copolymers with acrylonitrile content between 35% and 85% are called modified polyacrylonitrile fibers.

5. The Main Production Process of Acrylics:

Polymerization → Spinning → Preheating → Steam Drawing → Washing → Drying → Heat Setting → Crimping → Cutting → Baling.

1). The performance of polyacrylonitrile fiber is very similar to wool, good elasticity, elongation 20% when the resilience can still maintain 65%, fluffy curly and soft, warmth is 15% higher than wool, synthetic wool called. Strength 22.1~48.5cN/dtex, 1~2.5 times higher than wool. Excellent sunlight resistance, open-air exposure for a year, the intensity of only 20% decline, can be made into curtains, curtains, tarpaulins, gunnies and so on. Resistant to acid, oxidizer and general organic solvents, but poor alkali resistance. Fiber softening temperature of 190 ~ 230 ℃.

2). Acrylic fiber is known as artificial wool. It has the advantages of soft, bulky, easy to dye, bright color, light resistance, anti-bacterial, not afraid of insects, etc. According to the requirements of different uses, it can be purely spun or blended with natural fibers, and its textiles are widely used in the fields of apparel, decorations, industries and so on.

3). Polyacrylonitrile fiber can be blended with wool into wool yarn, or woven into blankets, carpets, etc., can also be blended with cotton, rayon, other synthetic fibers, woven into a variety of clothing and indoor supplies. Polyacrylonitrile fiber processed bulky wool can be pure spinning, or blended with viscose fiber, wool, to get a variety of specifications of medium and coarse floss and fine floss "cashmere".

4). Polyacrylonitrile fiber can be blended with wool into wool yarn, or woven into blankets, carpets, etc., can also be blended with cotton, rayon, other synthetic fibers, woven into a variety of clothing and indoor supplies. Polyacrylonitrile fiber processed bulky wool can be pure spinning, or blended with viscose fiber, wool, to get a variety of specifications of medium and coarse floss and fine floss "cashmere".

6. Production Method

1). Polyacrylonitrile fiber requires high purity of raw material acrylonitrile, and the total content of various impurities should be less than 0.005%. The second monomer of polymerization mainly uses methyl acrylate, also can use methyl methacrylate, the purpose is to improve the spinnability and fiber feel, softness and elasticity; the third monomer is mainly to improve the dyeing of the fiber, generally for the weakly acidic dyeing group of itaconic acid, strong acidic dyeing group containing sodium acrylenesulfonate, sodium methacrylenesulfonate, sodium methacrylamides benzene sulfonate, containing alkaline dyeing group of -methyl vinyl pyridine, etc.

2). Acrylic is the trade name of polyacrylonitrile fiber in China. Acrylic fiber has excellent performance, due to its nature close to wool, so it is called "synthetic wool". Since the industrial production in 1950, it has been developed greatly, the total output of acrylic fiber in the world is 2.52 million tons in 1996, and the output of our country is 297,000 tons, and our country will vigorously develop the production of acrylic fiber in the future. Although acrylic fiber is usually called polyacrylonitrile fiber, but the acrylonitrile (customarily called the first monomer) only accounts for 90% to 94%, the second monomer accounts for 5% to 8%, and the third monomer is 0.3% to 2.0%. This is due to the lack of flexibility of the fibers made of a single acrylonitrile polymer, which is brittle and very difficult to dye. In order to overcome these shortcomings of polyacrylonitrile, people use the method of adding the second monomer to make the fiber soft; adding the third monomer to improve the dyeing ability.

7. Production of Acrylic Fiber

The raw material of acrylic fiber is the cheap propylene by-product of petroleum cracking: because the polyacrylonitrile copolymer only decomposes but does not melt when heated above 230℃, so it can not be melt-spun like polyester and nylon fibers, and it adopts the method of solution spinning. Spinning can be used dry, can also be used wet. Dry spinning speed is high, suitable for spinning simulation silk fabric. Very suitable for the production of short fibers, fluffy and soft, suitable for the production of imitation wool fabrics.

8. Properties and Uses of Acrylic

1). Elasticity: It has better elasticity, second only to polyester and about 2 times higher than nylon. It has good conformability.

2). Strength: The strength of acrylic fiber is not as good as polyester and nylon, but it is 1~2.5 times higher than wool.

3). Heat resistance: the softening temperature of the fiber is 190-230℃, which is second only to polyester in synthetic fibers.

4). Light resistance: the light resistance of acrylic is the best among all synthetic fibers. After being exposed to the sun for one year, the strength only decreases by 20%.

5). Acrylic is resistant to acids, oxidizers and general organic solvents, but not alkali. The finished products of Acrylic have good fluffiness, good warmth, soft handfeel, good weather resistance and anti-mold and anti-moth performance. The warmth of acrylic is about 15% higher than wool. Acrylic can be blended with wool, and most of the products are used for civil use, such as wool, blanket, knitted sportswear, poncho, curtains, artificial fur, plush and so on. Acrylic is also the raw material of carbon fiber, which is a high-tech product.

IV. Chlorine Fiber


Although polyvinyl chloride is the oldest variety of plastic, but until the solution of the solvent required for spinning, and improve the thermal stability of the fiber, so that the chlorine fiber has a greater development. Because of the abundant raw materials, simple process, low cost, and has a special purpose, so it has a certain position in the synthetic fiber. Although polyvinyl chloride can be mixed with plasticizers, melt spinning, but most of them still use acetone as a solvent, solution spinning and the production of chlorinated fibers.

1. The Outstanding Advantages of Chlorine

Is flame retardant, warmth, sun, wear, corrosion and moth resistance, elasticity is also very good, can be manufactured in a variety of knitted fabrics, overalls, blankets, filters, rope velvet, tents, etc., especially because it is good for warmth, easy to produce and maintain static electricity, it is made of knitted underwear on rheumatoid arthritis has a certain therapeutic effect. However, due to poor dyeing, heat shrinkage, limiting its application. Improvements are made with other fiber varieties copolymer (such as vinyl chloride) or with other fibers (such as viscose fibers) for emulsion blending spinning.

The disadvantage of VCM is also prominent, i.e. very poor heat resistance.

2. Classification of Chlorine

Staple fiber, filament and mane. Chlorine staple fiber can be made into cotton wool, wool and knitted underwear, etc. These fabrics have a certain effect on the care of people with rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, polyvinyl chloride can be processed into flame-retardant textiles for special applications, such as sofas and safety tents. They are also used as industrial filter fabrics, work clothes and insulating fabrics.

3. Manifestation

1). Morphology Chloroplastic has a smooth longitudinal surface or 1 or 2 grooves, and the cross-section is close to circular.

2). Combustion properties Because of the large number of chlorine atoms in the molecules of Chloroplast, it is refractory to combustion. Chloroplastic goes out immediately after leaving an open flame, and this property has special uses in national defense.

3). Strong elongation Chloroplastic's strength is close to that of cotton, elongation at break is greater than that of cotton, elasticity is better than that of cotton, and abrasion resistance is also stronger than that of cotton.

4). Moisture absorption and dyeing of polyvinyl chloride is very small, almost non-hygroscopic. However, Chloroplast is difficult to dye, generally only dispersive dyes can be used for dyeing.

5). Chemical stability of chloroplastic acid and alkali, oxidizing agents and reducing agents, excellent performance, therefore, chloroplastic fabrics are suitable for industrial filter cloth, work clothes and protective equipment.

6). Warmth, heat resistance, etc. Chloroplastic light weight, good warmth, suitable for wet environment and field staff of the work clothes. In addition, the strong electrical insulation, easy to produce static electricity, and poor heat resistance, in 60 ~ 70 ℃ when the beginning of contraction, to 100 ℃ when the decomposition, so in the washing and ironing must pay attention to the temperature.

4. Main Features and Differences
1). Viscose (moisture absorption and easy to dye)

a. It is a man-made cellulose fiber, made by solution method spinning, due to the core layer of the fiber and the outer layer of the solidification rate is not the same, the formation of skin-core structure (from the cross-section slices can be clearly seen). Viscose is the most moisture absorption of ordinary chemical fiber, dyeing is very good, wearing comfort, viscose elasticity is poor, the strength of the wet state, abrasion resistance is very poor, so viscose is not resistant to washing, poor dimensional stability. Specific gravity, fabric weight, alkali resistance not acid resistance.

b. Viscose fiber has a wide range of uses, almost all types of textiles will use it, such as filament for lining, beautiful silk, flags, ribbons, tire cord, etc.; short fibers for imitation of cotton, imitation of wool, blending, interweaving, etc. .

2). Polyester (straight and not wrinkled)

a. Characteristics: high strength, good impact resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, moth resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, light resistance is very good (second only to acrylic), exposure to the sun for 1000 hours, the strength to maintain 60-70%, hygroscopicity is very poor, dyeing is difficult, the fabric is easy to wash and fast drying, good shape retention. It has the characteristic of "washable".

b. Filament: often as a low elasticity silk, making a variety of textiles;

c. Staple fiber: cotton, wool, hemp, etc. can be blended.

d. Industry: tire cord, fishing nets, ropes, filter cloth, edge insulation materials. Is currently the largest amount of chemical fiber.

3). Nylon (strong and wear-resistant)

a. The biggest advantage is strong and wear-resistant, is the optimal one. Small density, light fabric, good elasticity, fatigue damage resistance, chemical stability is also very good, alkali and acid resistance!

b. The biggest disadvantage is that the sunlight resistance is not good, the fabric will turn yellow after a long time in the sun, strength decline, moisture absorption is not good, but better than acrylic, polyester.

c. Uses: filament, mostly used in knitting and silk industry; staple fibers, mostly blended with wool or wool chemical fiber, as wadding, vannettin and so on.

d. Industry: cord and fishing nets, also can be used as carpets, ropes, conveyor belts, screens, etc..

4). Acrylic fiber (bulky and sunlight-resistant)

a. The performance of acrylic fiber is very much like wool, so it is called "synthetic wool".

b. Molecular structure: Acrylic fiber is unique in its internal structure, with irregular spiral conformation and no strict crystallization area, but there is a difference between high and low order arrangement. Due to this structure, Acrylic has good thermal elasticity (can be processed as bulky yarn), and the density of Acrylic is small, smaller than that of wool, so the fabric has good warmth.

c. Characteristics: sunlight resistance and weather resistance is very good (in the first place), poor moisture absorption, dyeing is difficult.

d. Pure acrylonitrile fiber, due to the internal structure of the tight, poor performance, so by adding the second, the third monomer, improve its performance, the second monomer to improve: elasticity and feel, the third monomer to improve the dyeing.

e. Use: Mainly for civilian use, can be pure spinning or blending, made of a variety of wool, wool, woolen blanket, sportswear can also be: artificial fur, plush, bulky yarn, water hose, parasol cloth and so on.

5). Vinylon (water-soluble hygroscopic)

a. The biggest feature is moisture absorption, synthetic fibers in the best, known as "synthetic cotton". Strength than brocade, polyester poor, good chemical stability, not resistant to strong acids, alkali resistance. Sunlight resistance and weather resistance is also very good, but it is resistant to dry heat but not heat and humidity (shrinkage) elasticity is the worst, the fabric is easy to wrinkle, poor dyeing, color is not bright.

b. Uses: blended with cotton; fine cloth, poplin, corduroy, underwear, canvas, tarpaulin, packaging materials, labor clothing and so on.

6). Polypropylene (lightweight and warm):

a. Polypropylene fiber is the lightest of the common chemical fibers. It almost does not absorb moisture, but has a good core absorption capacity, high strength, made of fabric size stability, wear-resistant elasticity is also good, good chemical stability. Thermal stability is poor, not resistant to sunlight, easy to aging brittle.

b. Uses: can weave socks, mosquito netting cloth, quilt wadding, warm filler, wet diapers and so on.

c. Industry: carpet, fishing nets, canvas, hose, medical tape instead of cotton gauze, do sanitary products.

7). Spandex (elastic fiber):

a. The best elasticity, the worst strength, poor moisture absorption, good light resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, abrasion resistance. 

b. Uses: Spandex is widely used in underwear, women's underwear, casual wear, sportswear, socks, pantyhose, bandages and other textile fields, medical fields. Spandex is a highly elastic fiber that is essential for high-performance clothing in pursuit of movement and convenience. Spandex stretches 5 to 7 times from its original shape, so it is comfortable to wear, soft to the touch, and does not wrinkle, and always retains its original silhouette.

V. Conclusion

1. Polyester, nylon: cross-sectional form: round or shaped; longitudinal form: smooth.

2. Polyester: close to the flame: fusion shrinkage; contact with the flame: melting, smoking, slow burning; away from the flame: continue to burn, sometimes self-extinguishing; odor: special aromatic sweet smell; residue characteristics: hard black beads.

3. Nylon: near the flame: melt shrinkage; contact with the flame: melt, smoke; away from the flame: self-extinguishing; odor: amino taste; residue characteristics: hard light brown transparent beads.

4. Acrylic fiber: near the flame: melt shrinkage; contact with the flame: melt, smoke; away from the flame: continue to burn, black smoke; odor: pungent taste; residue characteristics: black irregular beads, fragile. 

5. Spandex fiber: near the flame: melt shrinkage; contact with the flame: melt, burning; away from the flame: self-extinguishing; smell: special taste; residue characteristics: white gel.

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